Embedded case study -

PL Munhall Ed. Merriam, S. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Patton, MQ. Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods 2nd ed. Stake, RE. Case Studies. The question can also be linked to the rationale of why I choose five different teachers with different subject matters in a school.

Based on my original thoughts, I thought five different teachers can be "representative" I am a little afraid to use this word after I take CI and understand the phenomenon in a K school. After I talked to one of my friends who conducted a case study before, I realized the design could be problematic. If I want to understand the "difference" of teachers' iPad use in different content areas, one teacher in a content area seems to be weak because I cannot find the "pattern" in each area and compare these different patterns among different teaching practices in different areas.

I came up with a possibility of another design: focus on two different areas, say, language art and science, and study teachers in each area, find the patterns and compare. Of course this design could be easily changed when I actually begin to find my cases in the future.

My ideas could change when I continue to read Yin's book as well. I'm not sure if my understandings are correct right now. A detailed review of case studies is given by Yin A holistic case study is shaped by a thoroughly qualitative approach that relies on narrative, phenomenological descriptions.

The 2 case interview styles are Interviewer-led and Interviewee-led cases. Within both case styles, there can be a mixture of case interview types. Today, we focus on 6 types of consulting case interview frameworks. This video will explain the three different types of case study: Exploratory, Descriptive and Explanatory.

Types of Qualitative Case Studies - Duration: Rolanda Anderson 78 views. Case study as a qualitative methodology is an exploration of a time- and space-bound phenomenon. As qualitative research, case studies require much more from their authors who are acting as instruments within the inquiry process. Types of Case Studies. These types of case study multiple case study design yin the following: Illustrative Case Studies These are primarily descriptive studies.

Stake, Merriam and Yin depict a case study as a bounded system, in which the researchers set out boundaries and make clear statements about the focus and extent of multiple case study design yin research. Merriam limits her definition mostly to include qualitative case studies which are her focus. Accepting that single case studies are a valid form of case study research, the focus essay on friendship towards the selection criteria that determines whether single or multiple case studies will be done.

Similar to STAKE, MERRIAMwas not as structured in her approach as YINbut promoted the use of a theoretical framework or research questions to guide the case study and organized, systematic data collection to manage the process of inquiry. Simple in theory yet complex in nature, the planning, preparation and execution of case study research has developed to a point where the continued application of case study research across a number of professions particularly education, health, and social sciences, has provided a unique platform for credible research endeavors.

Key contributors to case study research and major contextual influences on its evolution are included. As the figure highlights, early case studies were conducted in the social sciences. With the dominance of logical positivism from the 's through to the 's and 's case study methodology was viewed with skepticism and criticism.

The development of grounded theory in the 's led to a resurgence in case study research, with its application in the social sciences, education, and the humanities. Over the last 50 years, case study has been re-established as a credible, valid research design that facilitates the exploration of complex issues.

Selecting research approaches and research designs: a reflective essay - Emerald Insight

While over time the contributions of researchers from varied disciplines have helped to develop and strengthen case study research, the variety of disciplinary backgrounds has also added complexity, particularly around how case study research is defined, described, and applied in practice.

In the sections that follow, the nature of this complexity in explored. There are a number of definitions and descriptions presented across the literature, which can create confusion when attempting to understand case study research.

YIN's two-part definition focuses on the scope, process, and methodological characteristics of case study research, emphasizing the nature of inquiry as being empirical, and the importance of context to the case. On the other hand, STAKE takes a more flexible stance and while concerned with rigor in the processes, maintains a focus on what is studied the case rather than how it is studied the method. For STAKE case study research is "the study of the particularity and complexity of a single case, coming to understand its activity within important circumstances" p.

These varied definitions stem from the researchers' differing approaches to developing case study methodology and often reflect the elements they emphasize as central to their designs. The diversity of approaches subsequently adds diversity to definition and description. A further challenge to understanding case study research relates to it being referred to and used as both a methodology and a method.

MILLS distinguishes methods as procedures and techniques employed in the study, while methodology is the lens through which the researcher views and makes decisions about the study. The ambiguity about case study being either or both a methodology and method, is compounded by the terminology used in discussions about case study.

Often these terms are used interchangeably without definitional clarity. For example, YIN discusses case multiple regression analysis case study research and in the context of presenting case study, refers to it as a research method while emphasizing the procedures used. He does not use the terms methodology or strategy. This mixed use of terminology is confusing given the definitional separations between methodology and methods and the varied application of case study in research endeavors.

This distinction accentuates the need for researchers to describe the particular underpinning methodology adopted and to clarify the alignment of chosen methods used with their philosophical assumptions and their chosen approach.

Exploring the philosophical orientation of case study research and variations in different case study approaches can help to clarify these differences, and promote a better understanding of how to apply these principles in practice. Many methodologies are aligned with specific philosophical positions that guide the research process. Philosophically, case study research can be orientated from a realist or positivist perspective where the researcher holds the view that there is one single reality, which is independent of the individual and can be apprehended, studied and measured, through to a relativist or interpretivist perspective.

In the context of healthcare research and specifically nursing, LUCK et al. Qualitative paradigms are broad and can encompass exploratory, explanatory, interpretive, or descriptive aims.

Multiple case study design yin

Each methodology is unique in approach depending on the ontological and epistemological stance, however all teen pregnancy essay from the motivation to explore, seek understanding, and establish the meaning of experiences from the perspective of those involved ibid. These attributes are commonly exemplified in case study research.

Like other forms of qualitative research, the researcher will seek to explore, understand and present the participants' perspectives and get close to them in their natural setting CRESWELL, Interaction between participants and the researcher is required to generate data, which is an indication of the researcher's level of connection to and being immersed in the field. Because of this, constructivism and interpretivism commonly permeate the implementation of this research design. The researcher's perceptions and interpretations become part of the research and as a result, a subjective and interpretive orientation flows throughout the inquiry CRESWELL, In choosing a methodological position, careful consideration of the different case study approaches is required to determine the design that best addresses the aim of the study, and that aligns with the multiple case study design yin worldview.

Examples are provided of how these researchers' philosophical orientation influences the application of case study in practice. YIN conceptualizes case study research as a form of social science.

Post-positivism is evident in how he defines "case study as a form of empirical inquiry" p. YIN himself describes his approach to case study as using a "realist perspective" p. Visit emeraldpublishing.

Abstract Purpose The purpose of this paper is to show the research process which is laid on the interrelated aspects of paradigm-research-based approaches and research designs. Findings From this practice, my chosen held paradigm, constructionism, has guided me to proceed with my research process, leading to the selection of a research approach qualitative case study and research designs interviews, observation, and document analysis.

These related methods deliberately avoid specifying any theoretical propositions at the outset of an inquiry. No guidance could be more misleading. Among other considerations, the relevant field contacts depend upon an understanding - or theory - of what is being studied.

Theory development Having a research question or questions theory development is an essential part of the design phase. Other theories cut across these illustrative types. Decision-making theoryfor instance can involve individuals, organizations and social groups Generalizing from case study to theory Theory development does not only facilitate the collection phase of the ensuing case study.

The appropriate developed theory also is the level at which the generalization of the case study results will occur. In statistical generalization, an inference is made about a population or universe is made on the basis of empirical data collected about a sample from that universe.

A fatal flaw in doing case studies is to conceive of statistical generalization as the method of generalizing the results of your case study. Analytical generalization can be used whether your case study involves one or several cases, which shall be later referenced as single or multiple case studies. The replication logic, whether applied to experiments or to case studies, must also be distinguished from the sampling logic commonly used in surveys.

The reasons are: 1. Case studies are not the best method for assessing the prevalence of phenomena 2. A case study would have to cover both the phenomenon of interest and its context, yielding essay daily routine large number of potentially relevant variables. This would require an impossible large number of cases - too large to allow any statistical consideration of the relevant variables. If a sampling logic had to be applied to all types of research, many important problems could not ne empirically investigated.

So you need replication logic, not sampling logic, for multiple-case studies.Michael A Guerra. Lincoln University. Claretha Hughes. University of Arkansas. David M. Sprick, PhD. Park University. Very reader friendly-easy to read using simple language.

Chapters 2 and 3 very useful. Mrs Olajumoke Fawole. October 21, Report this review. Mrs Nicola Sowe. What type of research will you likely be conducting when you get to New Multiple case study design yin The emic perspective refers to an external, social scientific view of reality.

Instrumental case study. No comments:. As discussed earlier, ensuring the alignment of philosophy and methodology with the research purpose and methods employed underpins a rigorous research process STEWART, Clarity in this alignment is fundamental to ensuring the veracity of the research and depends on the design developed. During this process, researchers are encouraged to "logically justify their philosophical position, research design and include a coherent argument for inclusion of varying research methods" LUCK et al.

Collective alignment of these elements articulates a justifiable framework for the research study and cultivates trustworthiness and the validity, reliability and credibility of the research findings. The authors describe case study as "a methodology, a type of design in qualitative research, an object of study and a product of the inquiry" p.

They conclude with a definition that collates the hallmarks of key approaches and represents the core features of multiple case study design yin case study:. Since the 's a broad scope of case study approaches have developed. This range accentuates the flexibility of case study research as a distinct form of inquiry that enables comprehensive and in-depth insight into a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines.

While differences exist in some areas, commonalities are evident that can guide the application of a case study research design. Key contributors to the development of case study agree that the focus of a case study is the detailed inquiry of a unit of analysis as a bounded system the caseover time, within its context.

The versatility of case study research to accommodate the researcher's philosophical position presents a unique platform for a range of studies that can generate greater insights into areas of inquiry. With the capacity to tailor approaches, case study designs can address a wide range of questions that ask why, what, and how of an issue and assist researchers to explore, explain, describe, evaluate, and theorize about complex issues in context.

Outcomes can lead to an in-depth understanding of behaviors, processes, practices, and relationships in context. Professions including the social sciences, education, health, law, management, business, and urban planning have embraced case study research, demonstrating these outcomes. Ongoing application of and sound debate about the value, validity, and capability of case study research have strengthened the efficacy of case study approaches as powerful forms of qualitative research.

Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research: An integrative review.

Multiple case study approach qualitative research

Journal of advanced nursing65 6 Case study methods in the international relations subfield. Comparative Political Studies40 2 Using Stake's qualitative case study approach to explore implementation of evidence-based practice.

Qualitative Health Research23 9metaphor essay Brown, Louise A review of the literature on case study research.

Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education1 1 Clarifying case study research: Examples from practice. Nurse Researcher17 3 Creswell, John W. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches 4th ed.

Qualitative research designs: Selection and implementation. The Counseling Psychologist35 2 Denzin, Norman K. Just as important- in multiple case study design yin interview data analysis stage -the use of the very same concepts may shine a bright light on the answer to a research question. The protocol introduced in this article highlights the communicative preferences participants have regarding types of interaction associated with different research methods.

Before reviewing the types of research methods that work well together, the idea of communicative preferences is first presented. The idea of communicative preferences is rooted in practical advice given to my students in research methods courses. Specifically, regarding most efficient and effective way for masters-level and doctoral students to communicate with their research advisors in Finland, where some advisors keep extremely limited office hours.

While teaching, student complaints about advisors-who never spent enough time advising their students-caused me to reflect on the direct observation that particular advisors had very clear communicative preferences which applied to almost everyone they dealt with, not just students. The practical advice I gave to my students was to systematically try at least three different approaches with their advisors and see which produced the best results: e-mail, via essay baseball and face-to-face.

I advised them to initially try e-mail with a very short request for a meeting or with specific questions, as this would allow their advisor to give a solid hint about his or her communicative preference. Once a clear communicative preference was established, the students were advised to continue to use the most effective communication channel they found.

During the same period of time, I was conducting the earlier cited qualitative studies in which several different research methods were used, for example, thematic interviews, biographical e-mail correspondence and group interviews. During the course of these studies, I observed that research participants also had the same types of communicative preferences, although initially the difference wasn't as obvious.

This was because each of the studies I was involved in normally employed one primary research method. However, because some of the studies dealt with similar topics, the advantages of approaching the same topic and research questions via fairly distinct methods-and incorporating the idea of communicative preferences-quickly became apparent.

This was because of the type of interaction was so different in, for multiple case study approach qualitative research a group interview, which was clearly optimal for some participants, while it clearly "shut down" meaningful participation for others.

Multiple regression analysis case study

This hunch was shared by another member of the research team in the same interview. While it was very easy to speculate on several probable reasons for this, that's all we could do-speculate.

We ended up discussing whether or not the participant in question might have responded very well to a follow-up e-mail multiple case study approach qualitative research or individual interview. Another key element of this evolving approach was the quick proliferation of communication channels being adopted within society, especially those related to information and communication technology ICT.

It is quite clear that many people enjoy e-mail, blogs and instant messaging as much or more than face-to-face interaction or talking on the phone. And it is not difficult to locate peers or students who seem like "different people" depending on which medium-or language for that matter-they are encountered.

When taken together, it was clear that the confluence of these circumstances laid the foundation for the practical approach advanced here. While there are important advantages and disadvantages for the customized paper associated with the use of different types of research methods within the same study, I multiple regression analysis case study point out that if the object of the game is to stimulate participation in the research ; using a variety of methods that corresponds to the communicative preferences of our potential participants, may be a better starting point than our own communicative preferences.

This is because our own communicative preferences-as researchers-are often unarticulated-therefore not discussed. In other words a "choice" that research participants are stuck with: If they decide to participate in the study. This last point is emphasized because participants may often keen to participate in a study on a topic that is important to them, but may not be keen on the method a researcher is using to approach the topic: more precisely, the nature of interaction that a particular method entails.

The point here: The choice of methods actually guarantees non-participation of some participants. This is the key rationale of approaching a topic with the idea of giving a participant a choice as to their mode of response. While the logic of this protocol will not address all research topics, it increases participation regarding many topics, a strong advantage over survey-based approaches. While surveys can be a powerful research method, suited to many research topics, many make the mistake of using them on topics that are not suitable, analytically speaking.

When this is the case, research time is better spent on pursuing analytical generalizations that-in and of themselves-may be much more meaningful than half-baked statistical generalizations. Alternatively, solid analytical generalizations can provide a basis for statistical generalizations, if this is desirable. Offering a participant several ways to contribute to the study-if possible-is a flexible approach to participation. The main idea of using the incremental interview approach protocol is based on two assertions.

Firstly, different research participants have different potential with regard to the extent they will be able to contribute to the understanding of a research topic. Secondly, independent of what this potential is, participants may have clear communicative preferences.

Types Of Case Studies Yin

Both of these can and do influence the likelihood of participation in a study and the subsequent nature of that participation. By taking advantage of the fact we know these dynamics in advance, the protocol is used incrementallyor gradually, depending upon the process of locating participantswhich often can yield significant data, as the example protocol indicates.

But, in special focus here is the nature of the encounter the researcher has with each new participant, the extent to which that participant will inform the research and their communicative preferences. Regarding the nature of interaction, the reason the word incremental is stressed in this protocol is based on the author's recognition that-within the same study, it is possible to meet three participants whose interviews-for example, thematic interviews- each take 1.

With Participant Ahardly anything is discussed that actually has to do with the research topic. There can be many reasons for this, ranging from poor purposeful selection on the part of the researcher sto the fact that some participants take a great deal of time in their verbal interactions as do some researchers. However, even when researchers have made poor choices and find themselves in interviews with participants they realize are not going to inform their research a great deal, no interview should be viewed as a waste of time.

This is for several reasons.

Chapter 11 Case Research - Research Methods for the Social Sciences

In an intrinsic case study, the case is selected on its own merits[ 8 ]. The case is selected not because it is representative of other cases, but because of its uniqueness, which is of genuine interest to the researchers.

This was, for example, the case in our study of the recruitment of minority ethnic participants into asthma research Table 1 as our earlier work had demonstrated the marginalisation of minority ethnic people with asthma, despite evidence of disproportionate asthma morbidity[ 1415 ].

In another example of an intrinsic case study, Hellstrom et al. For an instrumental case study, selecting a "typical" case can work well[ 8 ]. In contrast to the intrinsic case study, the particular case which is chosen is of less importance than selecting a case that allows the researcher to investigate an issue or phenomenon. For example, in order to gain an understanding of doctors' responses to health policy initiatives, Som undertook an instrumental case study interviewing clinicians who had a range of responsibilities for clinical governance in one NHS acute hospital trust[ 17 ].

Sampling a "deviant" or "atypical" case may however prove even more informative, potentially enabling the researcher to identify causal processes, generate hypotheses and develop theory.

In collective or multiple case studies, a number of cases are carefully selected. Choosing a "typical" case may enable the findings to be generalised to theory i. Yin suggests two or three literal replications i.

However, critics might argue that selecting 'cases' in this way is insufficiently reflexive and ill-suited to the complexities of contemporary healthcare organisations. The selected case study site s should allow the research team access to the group of individuals, the organisation, the processes or whatever else constitutes the chosen unit of analysis for the study.

Access is therefore a central consideration; the researcher needs to come to know the case study site s well and to work cooperatively with them. Selected cases need to be not only interesting but also hospitable to the inquiry [ 8 ] if they are to be informative and answer the research question s. Case study sites may also be pre-selected for the researcher, with decisions being influenced by key stakeholders.

For example, our selection of case study sites in the evaluation of the implementation and adoption of electronic health record systems see Table 3 was heavily influenced by NHS Connecting for Health, the government agency that was responsible for overseeing the National Programme for Information Technology NPfIT [ 5 ].

This prominent stakeholder had already selected the NHS multiple regression analysis case study through a competitive bidding process to be multiple case study approach qualitative research adopters of the electronic health record systems and had negotiated contracts that detailed the deployment timelines. It is also important to consider in advance the likely burden and risks associated with participation for those who or the site s which comprise the case study.

Of particular importance is the obligation for the researcher to think through the ethical implications of the study e. The outcome of providing this information might research analysis paper that the emotive burden associated with participation, or the organisational disruption associated with supporting the fieldwork, is considered so high that the individuals or sites decide against participation.

In our example of evaluating implementations of electronic health record systems, given the restricted number of early adopter sites available to us, we sought purposively to select a diverse range of implementation cases among those that were available[ 5 ]. We chose a mixture of teaching, non-teaching and Foundation Trust hospitals, and examples of each of the three electronic health record systems procured centrally by the NPfIT. At one recruited site, it quickly became apparent that access was problematic because of competing demands on that organisation.

Recognising the importance of full access and co-operative working for generating rich data, the research team decided not to pursue work at that site and instead to focus on other recruited sites. In order to develop a thorough understanding of the case, the case study approach usually involves the collection of multiple sources of evidence, using a range of quantitative e.

The use of multiple sources of data data triangulation has been advocated as a way of increasing the internal validity of a study i. Qualitative researches follow three basic steps when analyzing the data:. Welcome to the world of case studies that can bring you high grades! Here, at ACaseStudy. I'm Anna. Would you like to get a custom case study?

How about receiving a customized one? What is Qualitative Research Design? A case can be "whatever bounded system to use Louis Smith's term is of interest. The investigators identify the boundaries, and these boundaries what is and what is not a case are continually kept in focus. A case may be simple or complex.

It may be a single patient, a practice, a health care dissertation autobiographie. The goal in case study research is to understand the boundaries of the case and the complexity of the behavior patterns of the bounded system.

Researchers may study a single case or mutiple cases.

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